Evaluating changes in salivary oxytocin and cortisol following positive reinforcement training in two adult male western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla)

Positive reinforcement training (PRT) is associated with increases in species-typical behavior and decreases in stereotypic and abnormal behavior in participating animals. Physiological changes following PRT, for example, increases in oxytocin (OXT) and/or decreases in cortisol (CORT), may facilitate these behavioral changes. This study evaluated salivary OXT and salivary CORT concentrations in two adult male western […]

Oxytocin modulates responses to inequity in dogs

Although several animals respond negatively to inequity, the underlying neurochemistry of the process remains poorly understood. In this study, we tested whether the neuropeptide oxytocin mediates responses to inequitable outcomes in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Subjects exchanged tokens to receive a food reward in conditions in which the distribution of reward varied. Dogs did respond […]

Enhanced social learning between siblings in common ravens, Corvus corax

It has been suggested that social dynamics affect social learning but empirical support for this idea is scarce. Here we show that affiliate relationships among kin indeed enhance the performance of common ravens, Corvus corax, in a social learning task. Via daily behavioural protocols we first monitored social dynamics in our group of captive young […]

Quadratic postconflict affiliation among bystanders in a hamadryas baboon group

The tendency in primate groups for two opponents to affiliate shortly after a fight has been described as dyadic reconciliation. The response has been shown to restore disrupted relationships and curtail ongoing aggression. Rates of self-directed behaviour (e.g. scratching) are positively correlated with anxiety in primates and the rates decline after reconciliation, indicating that the […]

Social capital and physiological stress levels in free-ranging adult female rhesus macaques

Social animals with greater access to social support, i.e. higher levels of social capital, may be able to cope better with the challenges they face in their day-to-day lives, and this may be reflected in lower physiological stress levels. Here, we examine the relationship between social capital and fecal glucocorticoid (GC) levels in pregnant free-ranging […]

Affiliation and Aggression As Related to Gender in Domestic Chicks (Gallus gallus)

Social discrimination in male and female domestic chicks (Gallus gallus) was investigated by using (1) latencies of approach response, (2) simultaneous free choice, and (3) intersubject aggressive-pecking tests. In approach-response tests, females showed shorter latencies when tested with cagemates than when tested with strangers, whereas males showed shorter latencies when tested with strangers than when […]

How access to exhibit space impacts the behavior of female tigers (Panthera tigris)

Little is known about how socially housed captive carnivores respond to temporary reductions in available space. We documented rates of aggression and affiliation in our group of six female tigers, under their normal housing conditions and during a period of exhibit renovations which resulted in a 50% reduction in time spent in an outdoor enclosure. […]

Between-group hostility affects within-group interactions in tufted capuchin monkeys

Between-group competition has long been thought to be a key factor influencing within-group social dynamics. In humans, it has been suggested that between-group competition may favour the emergence of within-group cooperation. However, between-group competition can also be hypothesized to induce social tension and cause within-group social relationships to deteriorate. So far, little research has focused […]

Social Relations in a Mixed Group of Mules, Ponies and Donkeys Reflect Differences in Equid Type

Donkeys and mules are frequently kept as companion animals for horses and ponies, with these different equids often being considered a homogenous group. However, the extent to which domestic equids form inter-specific bonds and display similar social behaviour when living in a mixed herd has not previously been studied. Here we compare the social organization […]

Regurgitation and reingestion in bonobos (Pan paniscus): Relationships between abnormal and social behavior

Regurgitation and reingestion (R/R) is an abnormal behavior observed in great apes analogous to rumination syndrome in humans. A majority of the research on R/R in non-human primates has focused on gorillas and chimpanzees with little information relating to other species that also engage in this behavior. In addition, studies on R/R in non-human primates […]