A Case Study: Fecal Corticosteroid and Behavior as Indicators of Welfare During Relocation of an Asian Elephant

This study was a preliminary investigation of an enzyme immunoassay for measuring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in a male Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) by investigating changes in behavior and cortisol metabolite excretion associated with a putative stressful event. The study collected fecal samples for 10 days prior to, and 10 days after, 24-hr transport and relocation […]

Assessment of diurnal urinary cortisol excretion in Asian and African elephants using different endocrine methods

Longitudinal urine samples were collected from Asian and African elephants to assess sample processing and immunoassay techniques for monitoring adrenal activity. Temporal profiles of urinary cortisol measured by RIA and EIA, with and without dichloromethane extraction, were similar; all correlation coefficients were >0.90. However, based on regression analyses, cortisol immunoactivity in extracted samples was only […]

Relationships between patterns of Fecal corticoid excretion and behavior, reproduction, and environmental factors in captive black (Diceros bicornis) and white (Ceratotherium simum) rhinoceros

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20050.abs Mortality is high in zoo-housed black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), and the reproductive rates of captive white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) are unsustainably low. To determine the possible role of stress in the causation of these problems, we analyzed weekly fecal samples collected for 1 year from black (10 males and 16 females) and white […]

Comparative analysis of gonadal and adrenal activity in the black and white rhinoceros in North America by noninvasive endocrine monitoring

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10028.abs Patterns of fecal reproductive steroid metabolites and adrenal corticoids were characterized for 12- to 24-month periods in black (n = 10 male, 16 female) and white (n = 6 male, 13 female) rhinoceroses at 14 institutions. All black rhinoceros females exhibited at least some ovarian cyclicity on the basis of fecal progestogen analysis […]

Cortisol metabolism in the domestic cat and implications for non-invasive monitoring of adrenocortical function in endangered felids

Abstract 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2361(1996)15:13.3.CO;2-Q Three domestic cats were given i.m. injections of 3H-cortisol to determine the time course and relative proportion of excreted 3H-cortisol metabolites into urine and feces. Most urinary radioactivity was detected in the first sample collected at 3.9 ± 2.5 hr postinjection and accounted for 13.9 ± 2.1% of the total radioactivity recovered. High […]

Mean fecal glucocorticoid metabolites are associated with vigilance, whereas immediate cortisol levels better reflect acute anti-predator responses in meerkats

Adrenal hormones likely affect anti-predator behavior in animals. With experimental field studies, we first investigated associations between mean fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGC) excretion and vigilance and with behavioral responses to alarm call playbacks in free-ranging meerkats (Suricata suricatta). We then tested how vigilance and behavioral responses to alarm call playbacks were affected in individuals administered […]

Circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol secretion in female zoo-kept African elephants (Loxodonta africana)

Salivary samples were collected over a 24-hr period from one group of six juvenile (7–12 years) and one group of three adult (24–25 years) African elephant females, Loxodonta africana, and the cortisol concentration was measured in unextracted samples by EIA. Samples were collected during May, June, and November 2012 (n = 147) using cotton swabs at 4-hr […]