Using behavior to determine immature life-stages in captive western gorillas

Ontogenic development is divided into infant, juvenile, adolescent and adult life-stages. Although the developmental trajectory of an individual is a flexible entity, which differs within species, environment and sex, life-stage classifications are generally structured, age-based systems. This invariably leads to rigidity within a dynamic system and consequently hampers our understanding of primate life history strategies. […]

Adolescent sleep patterns in humans and laboratory animals

This article is part of a Special Issue “Puberty and Adolescence”. One of the defining characteristics of adolescence in humans is a large shift in the timing and structure of sleep. Some of these changes are easily observable at the behavioral level, such as a shift in sleep patterns from a relatively morning to a […]

Characteristics of Relinquishing and Adoptive Owners of Horses Associated With U.S. Nonprofit Equine Rescue Organizations

Nonprofit equine rescue organizations in the United States provide care for relinquished horses and may offer adoption programs. With an estimated 100,000 “unwanted” horses per year and few municipal shelters providing wholesale euthanasia, there is a need to minimize the number of unwanted horses and maximize their successful transition to new caregivers. This study’s objectives […]

Assessment of the differences in masticatory behavior between male and female adolescents

Chewing behavior may show sex differences; thus, the present study aimed to compare the masticatory aspects and the prediction of masticatory performance between male and female adolescents. Ninety-one healthy subjects (47 girls, 44 boys), caries-free and aged 14–17 years, were included. Masticatory performance and maximal bite force were evaluated using a color-changeable chewing gum and […]