Are “visitor effects” overestimated? Behaviour in captive lemurs is mainly driven by co-variation with time and weather

The concept that visitors affect behaviour of captive animals has interested zookeepers since the 1960s. However, to date no studies on “visitor effects” have allowed for time of day and weather, which can affect behaviour directly and frequently co-vary with visitor numbers. Here, we examine visitor effects on captive ring-tailed lemurs Lemur catta in a […]

Over-sized pellets naturalize foraging time of captive Orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica)

Parrots held in captivity experience distinctly different environmental demands, as compared to their wild conspecifics, particularly in regard to feeding. Cages equipped with computer-monitored infra-red beams (placed across a primary perch, in front of the feeder, in front of the drinking fount, and at the peak of the cage; interruption of a beam indicated a […]

Twenty-four hour activity budget and scent-marking behaviours of captive margays (Leopardus wiedii) in naturalistic enclosures, Belize

I present the first study of the twenty-four hour activity budget and scent-marking repertoire of margay. My results indicate that the sexes had remarkably similar activity budgets with the following exceptions: males (i) spent considerably more time roaming and (ii) sprayed more frequently than females, which fits the observation that males have larger territories than […]

Effect of Enclosure Size and Complexity on the Behaviors of Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

Reports describing the implementation of innovative facility designs are important to both the primate caregiving community and policymakers reviewing current U.S. Department of Agriculture regulations. This study documents the changes in behavior of 5 adult chimpanzees that coincided with transfer from the Psychology Building Facility to the large and complex chimpanzee enclosure within the Chimpanzee […]

Evaluation of different observational sampling regimes for use in zoological parks

Observational sampling methods provide clearly-defined guidelines for collection and analysis of behavioral data. In some situations, use of formal sampling regimes may be impractical or impossible. A case in point is data collection conducted by animal care staff at zoological parks and aquaria. Often, time is sufficiently limited that data collection is perceived as a […]

Nocturnal behavior in a group of female African elephants

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20084.abs The nocturnal behavior of a stable group of female, African elephants (Loxodonta africana africana) was studied to: (1) examine their behavior as a function of hour of night; (2) qualitatively compare the elephants’ activity budgets to those reported in a previous study; and (3) document the presence of aggressive and stereotypic behaviors that […]

Milk intake and development in a newborn captive African elephant (Loxodonta africana)

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.20048.abs In August 2003 the San Diego Zoo’s Wild Animal Park (WAP) and the Lowry Park Zoo, under the auspices of the AZA’s Elephant SSP and a USFWS permit, imported 3.8 African elephants (Loxodonta africana) from the Kingdom of Swaziland. When they were captured, transrectal ultrasound examinations revealed that one nulliparous cow was approximately […]

Effects of attached data-loggers on the activity budgets of captive Humboldt penguins

Abstract Although they can provide valuable information on at-sea ecology, data-loggers may adversely affect energetics, diving performance, and breeding success of equipped birds. With the aim of determining the effects of leg-attached data-loggers on the activity budgets of Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) while on land, we equipped birds kept at the Landau Zoo, Landau, Germany, […]

Change of enclosure in langur monkeys: implications for the evaluation of environmental enrichment

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.10058.abs A group of Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) was studied before and after it was moved from an old cage-style enclosure to a novel naturalistic environment at the London Zoo. Eating and locomotion occupied more of the langurs’ time in their new enclosure, whereas dozing, allogrooming, and aggression decreased, along with an increase in […]

The influence of food presentation on the behavior of small cats in confined environments

Abstract 10.1002/zoo.1430120206.abs Captive small felids frequently pace repetitively and/or spend large amounts of time inactive. Presenting a fishing cat with live-fish resulted in more activity (60% less sleeping), increased behavioral diversity, including previously unobserved hunting behaviors, and greater enclosure utilization. Effects persisted for at least 48 h after presentation of live fish, and up to […]