Sex-specific susceptibility to cocaine in rats with a history of prenatal stress

Across species, maternal stress during prenatal life (prenatal stress [PS]) increases the expression of health complications in the developing offspring. While numerous reports indicate that male rats with a history of PS are vulnerable to psychiatric disease-like symptoms and drugs of abuse, comparable studies with females have been more limited. Here, the effects of PS […]

Ethics in zoos

Animals have been kept in captivity since around the time of the ancient Egyptians. Over the centuries people have captured and maintained groups of wild animals for numerous reasons, ranging from the display of wealth to education and conservation. However, Homo sapiens has not always treated its fellow creatures well and this has led, more […]

The effect of frequency and duration of training sessions on acquisition and long-term memory in dogs

Most domestic dogs are subjected to some kind of obedience training, often on a frequent basis, but the question of how often and for how long a dog should be trained has not been fully investigated. Optimizing the training as much as possible is not only an advantage in the training of working dogs such […]


Equine husbandry is carried out in an environment unnatural to horses, which enforces their adaptation to artificial conditions. Besides housing conditions, the management and human-horse relationship is very important for both human safety and a high level of animal welfare and performance. This would not be possible if horses were not able to learn. For […]

A cage-based training, cognitive testing and enrichment system optimized for rhesus macaques in neuroscience research

In neurophysiological studies with awake non-human primates (NHP), it is typically necessary to train the animals over a prolonged period of time on a behavioral paradigm before the actual data collection takes place. Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) are the most widely used primate animal models in system neuroscience. Inspired by existing joystick- or touch-screen-based systems […]